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Selasa, 01 Oktober 2013

Skripsi Bahasa Inggris - Komplit



THE INFLUENCE OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON THE STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT SMP N 5 LANGSA
 
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    Background of the Problem
Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a tool of communication among the nations in all over the world. As an international language, English is very important and has many interrelationships with various aspects of life owned by human being. In Indonesia, English is considered as the first foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to the university level.  

In school level, there are some factors which can influence English learning and teaching process, the first is curriculum a body of knowledge to be transmitted. The second is materials a subject matter or the consequential events or facts, or the knowledge or cognitive of which would significantly affect a decision or course of treatment. The next, teaching and learning objectives have a specific purpose to reach in study. The last is teacher i.e. the person who provides schooling for pupils or students. A teacher who facilitates education for an individual student may also be described as a personal tutor.
 

Teaching and learning English as a foreign language is a difficult thing for students in EFL context, where exposure to English is limited to a few hours per week. Students, learning English as a second or foreign language, struggle with many structural issues including knowing the genres of the material they are studying, the social function of text, selecting proper words, using correct grammar, generating ideas, and developing ideas about specific topics[1].
More importantly, they have trouble developing functional language skills, such as proper natural language use in different social contexts and using language in creative ways.[2] These functional usage problems of language are worsened because English teachers tend to focus largely on teaching students’ grammar, and proper language structure, and typically see students as passive writers (the students just write what their teacher asks without any innovation and creation in writing such as; writing other topics or discussing current issue). These factors tend to hamper students from improving their classroom intertreatment and keep them from developing more active learning.
Teaching English can be classified into four skills, namely: writing, speaking, listening and reading. From those skills, the curriculum for English teaching are designed. However, in the practice, teaching writing is the most difficult one, since it belongs to productive skill.[3] However, the teacher can use feedback to overcome the problem faced when he/she is teaching n the class.
In delivering lesson in the class the teacher needs to give feedback to the students whenever they have finished answering the question or exercise given. The feedback itself has function to enhance the students’ understanding about the material given through exercises.
The term feedback can apply to a number of classroom situations and procedures, but here it refers to a range of techniques employed by the teacher to facilitate responses from the students to an exercise or task.[4]
Inevitably, teachers feel that the whole class needs and deserves to know the correct answer or response to a question, and students expect to be told whether their answers are right or wrong, but there are alternatives to traditional whole-class feedback conducted by the teacher or teacher-nomination in a lockstep pattern. Traditional feedback is teacher-led, involves little communication between learners and tends to be contrary to current good classroom practice.
Feedback plays an important part in learning actives because by giving feedback, the teacher can guide and train the students to think more critically especially when they are learning English particularly in speaking activity. Feedback greatly affects student’s motivation. One of the principles that the use of feedback is to give the students ample information about what they have done with the exercise.
The teacher usually provide feedback on assignments, exercises, home work, daily tests, the development of social skill, the effort to learn, mastering a skill, etc; which has been attempted by the students. To provide feedback, teachers can do it both verbally and non-verbally. Feedback can be in the form of rewards for example; the students who do the learning activity and achieve the learning out comes with good mark must be rewarded with something which can motivate them for learning more and more. The reward can also construct the students’ mind more critics than before. The improvement of learning out comes will be got by the students earlier than as usual.[5]
Theoretically, there are two types of feedback, namely positive and negative. Positive feedback is feedback given to praise the students have done something right. It should relate to specific behaviors and notices the benefits. Negative feedback is feedback given to point out something a student has done wrong or sub-optimally and help prevent similar mistakes in the future. It should always clearly explain what should have been done and encourage improvement.[6] It means that feedback can help the students to enhance their achievement. According to Marriam Webster negative feedback is “that tends to dampen a process by applying the output against the initial conditions”[7] It means that negative feedback can influence the students’ understanding becoming worse than before because of un-proper manner.
Feedback can influence the students’ achievement. Notion of feedback in this study is providing information about whether or not the students answer the question or questions are provided, along with additional information or explanation of fault location of motivation verbal or written. Through this feedback, a student can know how far the material can be understood and mastered comprehensibly.[8] It means that the students can estimate what they should know from the material.
Maryam stated ”We think feedback is essential in helping groups and group member learn more about how they operate and about themselves individual. We also think that feedback has to be given skillfully.”[9] From the quotation, it can be inferred that feedback is the process of giving comprehensible input to the students through test or exercise.
Based on the explanation of some experts, feedback is getting sensory information from a person or a teacher to get a response from the listener or student. This knowledge can be obtained in respect of acts or responses that have been given the task by the teacher, and this feedback is also based on a review of literature, which is the type of feedback that are both positive and negative feedback.
In the school where the writer conducts the research, it is found that the English teacher always uses feedback in the class. It seems that the feedback given by the teacher affects the students’ achievement. Therefore, the writer is interested in conducting the research in that school.
Based on the above explanation, the writer wants to make a research entitled “THE INFLUENCE OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON THE STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT SMP N 5 LANGSA”.
B.     The Problems of the Study
Based on the background above of study above, the writer have two research questions, there are:
1.      How far do positive and negative feed-backs influence the eight year students’ achievement in learning English at SMP N 5 Langsa?
2.      What are the strength and weaknesses of positive and negative feedback in learning English to the eight year students’ achievement at SMP N 5 Langsa?
C.    The Purposes of the Study
By seeing the problems of the study, the writer has two purposes in conducting this research, namely:
1.      To know how far positive and negative feed-backs influence the eight year students’ achievement in English at SMP N 5 Langsa.
2.      To find out the strength and weaknesses of positive and negative feedback in teaching English to the eight year students’ achievement at SMP N 5 Langsa.
D.      Significance of the Study
The findings of this study are expected to be useful for:
1.      The writer really hopes that after reading the thesis specifically, the reader can get new information about the use of feedback in English language teaching.
2.      For English teacher, it is supposed that teaching English in the class can be done in various manners not in monotonously for example by giving feedback to the students.
3.      The writer also expects to encourage herself for conducting research in other topic based on this experiences.
E.       Limitation of the Problem
The study focuses on the students’ activity in learning English especially when they are learning to read. The writer concentrates this study in the aspect of the students’ activity in reading and the use of positive and negative feedback.
F.       Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a tentative answer to the problem of the research to prove through the data collected. The hypotheses in this discussion are:
1.      The negative feedback influences the students’ achievement in learning English in SMP N 5 Langsa. (H1)
2.      The positive feedback influences the students’ achievement in learning English in SMP N 5 Langsa.
3.      The positive and negative feedback do not influence the students’ achievement in learning English in SMP N 5 Langsa. (H0)
The statistical formula of the hypothesis are:
( - ) > ( + )
( + ) > ( - )
( - ) ≠( + )

G.      Terminology
Definitions of positive and negative feedback are as the following:
a.         Positive feedback is encourages a student to repeat and or expand upon a given contribution in target language. It is very similar to what psychologists would refer to as a positive reinforce.
Example:
v  T: “What is today’s date?”
v  S: “Today is Tuesday, October 31.”
v  T: “Very good! And which year?”
v  S: “2006.”
v  T: “Great job!”
b.        While negative feedback according to Marriam Webster, is “feedback that tends to dampen a process but applying the output against the initial conditions.
v S: “Last weekend I go to movies and write paper for class.”
v “No, that’s no exactly how we would say that. Listen, last weekend I went to the movies, and I also wrote a paper for class.”
The teacher might follow this recasting with an explanation of past tense verbs as well as definite and indefinite articles if the student’s language doesn’t have them, as this example suggests.[10]


[1] Harmer.J, The Practical English Language Teaching, (New York, Prentice Hall, 2001) p.24
[2] Richard and Rodger et al, Approach and Method in Language Teaching, (Oxford, Oxford University Press 2001)p.123
[3]  Brown D, Teaching By Principle,( New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc,  2004)p.9
[6]Mustafa http://www.ehow.com/facts 7419943 performasnce-feedback.html.(accessed on April, 6 - 2012)
[8] Rooijakkers. Mengajar dengan sukses (Jakarta.PT.Grafindo) 6
[9] Maryam, in  Mustafa http://www.ehow.com/facts 7419943 performasnce-feedback.html.(accessed on April, 6 - 2012)
[10] http:// Flteaching. Wikispaces.com/Feedback(accessed on Agustus, 4 - 2012)
 



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