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Selasa, 19 Maret 2013

Thesis : THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PAST TENSE MASTERY AND THE ABILITY OF TRANSLATING NARRATIVE TEXT AMONGST THE ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 SEUNUDDON




THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PAST TENSE MASTERY AND THE ABILITY OF TRANSLATING NARRATIVE TEXT AMONGST THE ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 SEUNUDDON 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.      The Background of Study
Learning language is learning about communication and culture. In Indonesia, English is a foreign language. English has been learned in every levels of education from elementary school up to university level. The aim of learning English is to improve students’ skill in both oral and written communication. Learning English means learning four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Student should master these skills if they want their ideas, feelings and opinions can be understood by the people.

In Indonesia English is a prerequisite course at school. Even learning English as apart of language skills has been apart of SMAN 1 Seunuddon program that can be seen in the curriculum. Learning a foreign language means learning about another language beside native language of a country. It is means we learn how to translate our native language into foreign language or on the contrary.
Translate is the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language.[1] Then according to Newmark “translation is a skill consists of the attempts to replace of the written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in other language”.[2] From the definition above, the writer can describe that translate is an activity of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translate is not only change the meaning of a source language into target language but translator also must understand and pay attention to the semantic structure of a language in order to he/she can translate well according to linguistic method. For example, when a translator wants to translate an English text into Indonesia language so he/she should translates by using semantic structure so that her/his written can be understood well by the reader.
However there are some rules in translating especially English. In order to the translator be able translate grammatically so he/she should master the English grammar. Grammar is the important component in English to improve the competence in using English. Grammar is the explanation that describes the rules for forming words and making sentences (sentence is a group of words that creates complete meaning or sense).[3] From the explanation above the writer understands that grammar is the rules in a language for changing the form words and joining them into sentences. Because of these English can not separate with grammar.
There are many ways to translate, especially by understanding the grammar. It helps the students in translating easily. SMAN 1 Seunuddon is one senior high school in Aceh. The students learn English because it is one of required lessons taught in this school. There are many materials are learned in English, one of them is understand a text. But the most popular text taught in this subject is about narrative text. It is suitable with the curriculum in this school. To be able to comprehend a text well the students have ability to translate the text firstly. While in translating a text students should pay attention to the rules of translation. And then to be able to translate the narrative text well the students have ability to understand the grammar of English. There are types of grammar and ways to comprehend text consist of noun, pronoun, adverb, tenses etc. but in this thesis the writer only focus to one of grammar in English is tenses.
Narrative is description of events especially in a novel, fables or legend etc, or a process of skill of telling a story.[4] Thus narrative tells about the event which happened in the past time. In generally the tense that is often used in narrative is past tense form. We can see it from the definition about past tense is a tense used to describe actions or events which took place in the past.[5]
Past tense as one of the materials of English lesson has been taught in this school in second year at the first semester, and then the school has gave many books to them to improve their ability in understanding a text. In the class, teacher teach about narrative and past tense form to the student then asked then to understand and translate a text of narrative form. Master the tenses of English is one of the aspect that influence students ability in translation. Thus they must master the tenses so that their translation is good.
If the teacher uses suitable way to understand the way how to translate so the students’ ability will be increase in translating a text. But based on preliminary study, the students still have many difficulties in translating a text. It can be seen by the mistakes they made when they translate a narrative text.
That is why the writer wants to conduct a research on the thesis “The Correlation Between Past Tense Mastery And The Ability Of Translating Narrative Text Amongst The Eleventh Grade Students Of SMAN 1 Seunuddon”.

B.       Statement Of Problem
a.        How is the students’ ability in mastering past tense?
b.         How is the students’ ability in translating narrative text?
c.        Is there any correlation between the students’ ability in mastering past tense and translating narrative text?

C.    The Objectives of Study
The objectives of this study are:
a.         To analyze the students’ ability in mastering past tense
b.         To identity the students’ ability in translating narrative text
c.       To investigate the correlation between past tense mastery and students’ ability in translating narrative text.

D.    The Significances of Study
The study about the correlation between past tense mastery and the ability in translating narrative text hopefully will be useful to give some contributions to English language teaching and learning.
a.       For teacher and researcher
The finding of this research will inform them about grammatical component that need to be given emphasis to assist students to translate a grammatically accurate narrative text.
b.      For the students
They can be motivated to practice more than they did before and they are encouraged to learn grammar seriously, so that they can work with various text types without much difficulty.
c.       For the readers
It can inform them about the correlation between students’ mastery of past tense and the ability in translating narrative text.

E.     The Hypothesis
The Hypothesis of This Research is State Below:
a.       The better the students understand past tense, the better the students’ ability in translating narrative text.
b.      The worse the students understand past tense, the worse the students’ ability in translating narrative text.

F.     Terminology
a.       Correlation
Correlation is closely related or connected of two things, or shows such relation between two things.[6] In other words make close relationship or connection of two things. Then McMillan stated that correlation is a measure of the relationship between two variables.[7] From the question above the writer understand that correlation is defined as the mutual relationship between two things.
Someone, for instance is good at one side and similarly good at another side. On the other hand, if not good at one side, certainly not good at another side. It can be said that two tests are correlated when the test score in the first test correlate with those of the second test. This means that the students have good score in the first test, they may also get good scores in the second so, the correlation exist between two or more quantifiable variables, the linguistic expressed it as a correlation coefficient.
It means that correlation is a comparative research that aims to obtain the similarly by and the differences. In other word, this research means to find out whether there is a correlation between one test and another.

b.   Past Tense
Past tense is form of a verb used to describe actions in the past.[8] Furthermore Collins mentioned “past tense is a tense used to describe actions or events which took place in the past”.[9] Thus the writer knows that past tense is the use of the past form to refer to past events.

c.   Mastery
Berttranm said “the word mastery is derived word master means the highest possible level of skill”.[10] While Webster stated “that mastery means skills or knowledge in a subject that make one master it”.[11]
From the quotation above the writer concludes that mastery is someone’s ability in doing and making a certain physical or mental response.

  1. Ability
According to Martin H. Manser “ability is skill or power”.[12] Allyn and Bacon said that “ability is potential or power to do something physical or mental or special nature power to do something well”.[13] From statement above the writer concludes that ability is someone’s basic (power, potential and skill) which by it can bring someone to the progress and safety.
The term “ability” in this writing is the power of the students to understand the material given by the teacher in the classroom and the ability of students’ learned about past tense and translation.

e.       Translating or Translation
Catford wrote “Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language”.[14] Furthermore in Pinhhuck as quoted by Suryawinata said translation is a process of finding a TL (Target Language) equivalent for an SL (Source Language) utterance.[15]  From the quotation above the writer concludes that translation is the process of transformation of a written or spoken SL (Source Language) into a TL (Target Language).
f.       Narrative Text
By dictionary definition, narrative is description of skill of telling a story.[16] And then narrative is an account of a sequence of events, usually in chronological order. Relating to kinds of text, which students have to complete studying in high school, narrative is a text which retells the story or previous experiences.[17] The purpose of the text is to entertain or amuse readers or listeners about the story.



CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A.      Definition of Grammar
Talking about the definitions of grammar, there would probably be as many definitions as the number of linguistists who manages to define it. Those definitions, however essentially convey the same idea. Cook and Suter stated:
“Grammar is a set of rules by which people speak or write. These rules are not always understood consciously, and if you asked people what the rules of English grammar were, they would probably offer one or two or say they did not know. The reason is that rules we refer to are those that hardly anyone ever thinks about but which low people to use their language easily and naturally most of the time.”[18]

The statement indicates that grammar is a set of rules derived from language rules that most of its native speaker rarely care about. However, theses enable them to communicate each other without creating misunderstanding and misinterpretation. They commonly do not realize, that when they express themselves trough writing or speaking, what they write or speak have patterns and they keep subconsciously applying the patterns in their communication.
Meanwhile in the context of education especially in the learning and teaching of foreign language, grammar is usually considered one of the language components other that vocabulary and sound system which students should acquire.
As foreign language learners commonly do not have much direct exposure to the language mastery. Language component is one of the ways to support the mastery of foreign language skills. This is indicated by Veith’s statement that grammar is what enables people to understand the very words they are reading as well as to speak or write words or sentences of their own.[19] This means that even in order to be able to read a piece of text in a foreign language well, we should know of that language. It also happened in translating. In order to competence in translating, we should know of the language structure.
1.      English tenses
 Tense is a system which we use to refer to time; past, present, and future. Many languages use tense to talk about time. In English, we use tense as a method that we use to indicate time. Other languages may have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time using different methods. Hornby assumed that tense is any of the forms of a verb that may be used to indicatethe time of the action or state express by the verb.[20] In line with Hornby that said tense is verb form that shows time, Frank stated that tense is special verb endings or accompanying auxiliary verb signaling the time an event takes place.[21] From the statements above, basically they have some opinions about tense. The description of verb form differs according to the way term tense is interpreted. The most common interpretation of tense is semantic interpretation and the other is based on the verb form itself. On the basis of semantic interpretation, most grammarians present three tense systems; present, past, and future. Each of them expresses time in relation to a particular point in the present, past and future respectively. These different tenses are signaled by verb ending or by  their auxiliary verb.
The second basis of the tense is on the basis of verb alone. There are only two tenses; present and past tense. Each of them is marked by different forms in the lexical verb itself or in the auxiliary used with verb.
2.      Past tense
2.1.      Definition of past tense
Past tense is a tense used to describe actions or events which took place in the past or the used of the past form to refer to past events.[22] While Wren and Martin defined a verb that refers to past time is said to be in the past tense.[23] It should be clear from the definition that past tense is used to indicate something that happened in the past and this is showed by the past form of the verb. Wren and Martin mentioned the past tense has the four forms, they are simple past, past continuous, past perfect, and past perfect continuous tenses.[24] They are discussed in details in the following sub section.
2.2.      The Description Of Meaning, Form and Function
1.         Simple Past Tense
The simple past tense is the normal tense for past actions. Firstly, for the regular verb, the past form is made by adding –EDD to the verb.[25] The example are (walked, worked, opened …). For irregular verbs, the past forms are more or less idiosyncratic, the example are (write-wrote, catch-caught). The same form is used for all persons except with the verb “be” (was and were). It is depend on the subject. Was used to I, she, he, it and were used to you, we, they. Negative statements and yes/no questions in the simple past tense included the word “did” and “did not” and the verb form used is the simple form of the verb. For example, Lisa went to Malang last week, Lisa did not go to Malang last week, Did Lisa go to Malang last week?
Wren and Martin wrote in their book that the simple past is used to indicate an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.[26]  For example, I received his letter a week ago. Sometimes, this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context, for example I did not sleep well. The simple past is also used for past habits; as, He studied many hours every days. Therefore, such expression as “… when I was a child, never, always, usually, and often” are usually included. For example, I stayed with the family quite often when I was a child.
2.         Past Continuous Tense
Past continuous tense commonly describes an action that was in progress during a particular time in the past or an event that was in progress when another event interrupted or when two or more events were still in progress at the same time. The past continuous tense is formed by using a past tense form of the verb “be” with the progressive form of the verb. The verb “was” is used for singular subjects and “were” is used for plural subjects.
The past continuous tense is used to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished. For example, Tom was cooking the dinner. We often use the past continuous and the past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else. For example, It was raining when I got up. Moreover, this tense is also used with always, continually, etc, for persistent habits in the past. 
3.         Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense gives an idea that one thing had happened before another time or before another event happened in the past. The past perfect tense is formed with “had” and past participle and it is used for all subjects. Generally, past perfect tense an action completed in the past before another time or action in the past. However, past perfect tense can be used to express a recently completed action in the past. Usually, the word “just” is used to show that the action occurred immediately before the time of speaking. For instance, when I arrived, Bob had just left. Besides, when “since or for” is used, past perfect tense shows an action which began in the past or was stills continuing for a period of time before something in the past. For example, we had had the car for ten years before it broke down.
Furthermore, past perfect tense indicates that something happened before another action in the past. Besides, it can also show that something took place before a specific time in the past, e.g. I had never visited the museum before I moved here. Moreover, in conditional sentences, past perfect is used to indicate the impossible type, for example, If you had told him, he would have helped you. When it is used with “if only, wish, etc,” it expresses a past wish that was not realized like in “I wish that I had brought my torch with me.” It is also usually used with “as if” when referring to area or imaginary action in the past. For example, He talks about Rome as if he had been there himself. In indirect speech, past perfect tense is used to replace simple past and present perfect in direct speech.
4.         Past Perfect Continuous Tense
In general, past perfect continuous tense indicates that one event was in progress immediately before, up to, or until another event in the past. The tense is used to express the duration of the first event. The past perfect continuous tense is formed with “had been“+ the present participle. It, therefore, is the same for all persons. Past progressive tense basically has the same relation to past perfect in that it is used to express something begun in the past. However, it emphasizes continuity of past action. So, the example such as “She was tired because she had been working since dawn” shows that at the time of speaking, her activity of working still continued.
Past perfect continuous is also used to indicate an action or habit taking  place over a period of time in the past prior to some other past events. For instance, He had been walking to school before his father bought him a bicycle. This means that before he had a bicycle he used to walk to school. Besides, we use past continuous tense to express past action that was in progress getting interrupted by another past action. For example, “We had been planning to visit our family in Aceh but we changed our mind because of the Tsunami.” We can also use past continuous to indicate duration before something in the past. Therefore, such word as “for” is usually used, e.g. Mr. William had been teaching there for ten years before he retired. It is also common to use past perfect continuous to show cause of something in the past, e.g. Jim was out of breath because he had been jogging. 

B.     Translation
1. Definition of Translation
Translation maybe regarded either as an art or a skill depending on our perfection of translation as an activity. For some experts, translation can not be taught but rather learned from exercises, and be practicing a lot. In Larson and Smalley, as quoted by Widyamartaya said:
“Translation is sophisticated, advanced linguistic skill. Not something for beginners. It is valuable for communication if one already knows two languages well. Translation not only requires a good knowledge of two language, but also special training and experience. To be able to talk two languages does not mean that one can translate between them effectively and skillfully. Switching from one to the other must be learned”.[27]

In fact, translation is a skill consisting of the attempts to replace of the written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in other language.[28]
According to this definition, translation is a skill which of course requires certain qualification of translator. A translator has to understand the written message in the native language before transferring it into the target language.
2. Kinds of Translation
According to Larson, there are two main kinds of translation. One is form based translation and the other is meaning based translations.[29]
From based translation attempts to follow the form of the source language and is known as literal translation. Meaning based translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Such translation is called idiomatic translation. He moreover added that an interlinear translation is a completely literal translation.
For some purpose, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text, as for example, in a linguistic study of that language although these literal translations may be very useful for purpose related t the study of the source language, they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value.
Except for interlinear translations, a truly literal translation is uncommon. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a practically modified literal translation. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical items are translated literally. Occasionally, these are also change to avoid complete nonsense or improve the communication.
A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory. However, if he has a choice, he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. Literal translations of words, idioms, figures of speech, etc, result in unclear, unnatural and sometimes nonsensical translation. In a modified literal translation, the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid real nonsense and wrong meaning, but the unnaturalness skill remains.
Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language, both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation it sound like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. This is his goal. However, translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. It is not easy to make an idiomatic translation consistently.
The translator’s goal is reproducing a text receptor language, which communicates the same message as the source language by using the natural grammatical and lexical choice of the receptor language. This goal is an idiomatic translation.
3. Translation Process
            Translation is a complicated process. However, a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired. Meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. A faithful translator will not translate word for word. There are two things are necessary for a good translation an adequate understanding of the original language (the source language) and which one is translating (the receptor language).
            But considering the complexity of language structures, how can a translator of language produce an adequate translation? Literalism can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language, by first of all, understanding clearly the message to be communicated a translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text to write a semantic analysis of it, and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language, will be able to provide an adequate, and sometimes brilliant translations.
Suryawinata mentioned there are four steps of translation process.[30]
a.       Analysis
In this step, the structure or the sentences be analyzed according to grammatical relations, the meaning of words or word combinations, textual meaning, and even contextual meaning. This is behind the transformation process.
b.      Transferring
In this step, the material that has been analyzed and understood the meaning was processed by the translator in his/her mid and will be changed from source language into target language. But in this step, it has not produced a series of words, it only occur in the inner of translator.
c.       Restructuring
Furthermore, the translator tried to find the equivalent words, phrases, and the proper sentence structure in the target language so that the content, meaning and the message in the source language text can be delivered fully.

d.      Evaluation and Revision
After translator got the result in the target language translation, the result were reevaluated or matched with the original text. If it is still less match, the translator will do the revision.

C.    Text
In general sense, text is any form of written material. Halliday and Hasan stated:
“what do we mean by text? we can define text, in the simple way, perhaps by saying that it is a language that is functional. By functional we simply mean language that is doing some job in some context, as opposed to isolated word or sentence that I might put on the blackboard. So any instances of living language that is playing some part in a context of situation. We shall call it a text. It may be either spoken or written, or indeed in any other medium of expression that we like to thing of “.[31]


This definition surely tells us many think about text. A text can be either spoken or written, can be a word or as thick as a book in length. So, a text has nothing to do with form or size. Second, a text is not isolated words or sentences being put together. On the other hand, it constitutes a meaningful message that a person tries to communicate through his use of certain in certain acceptable structure. So, it has something to do with meanings, meanings forming a stretch of language working together as a unified whole. Related to this, Joyce and Feez cited some examples showing how a stretch of language that is called a text differs from that which is not.[32] Here, the writer intends to show the latter. Below is the example:
“Once upon a time there was a little white mouse called “tiptoe”. The boys lived in a large brick house with a roof at the end of the longest street in town.  That morning Mrs. Smooks left home in a great hurry. But, too late, William realized that the car had no brakes. So they ran and they ran and they ran until eventually the giant go tired out so that he couldn’t follow them anymore. “What an exciting day,” she sighed. And so he never goes alone to the shops any more”.

Once we read the “text” above, we will direct realize there is something wrong with it. Every sentence in the paragraph does not relate to each other so that there is nothing meaningful that we could catch from it. The third consideration of Halliday and Hasan’s statement about text is that a text is language that is functional. It means that language in a text serves a certain function; this function is the one that finally differentiates and determines our choice of words to construct a text.[33] And concerning this, Derewianka points out texts differ in terms of the purposes they carry. The tern purpose here is more or less similar to what Halliday and Hasan termed “functional” above. Functional means a stretch of language, or a text, is in use. It has a function or in Derewianka’s words, it has a purpose, i.e., we use language because we have a purpose.[34] Meanwhile, as we use language for various purposes, numerous types of texts are resulted. And these different types of texts are often labeled “genre”; types of texts that vary across culture. Summing up what has stated above, it can be said that text is a meaningful and purposeful stretch of language, either spoken or written, represented trough the use of words (lexis), the appropriate way they are arranged (grammar), and the structure of which is affected by the purpose it has. 

1.        Narrative as one of text types in English
Since texts are constructed in order to achieve different purposes, they are constructed in different ways. Consequently, there are a lot of text types in English. However they are categorized into two kinds, namely literary text and factual text. There are three main text types in the literary texts, i.e., narrative, poetic as well as dramatics. Meanwhile, such text types as recount, explanation, discussion, information report, exposition procedure, as well as response belong to factual texts.
Narrative as one of the literary text can be said as the simple text type because it tells about the story in human life.

2.      Definition of  Narrative
Keraf stated that narrative is a discourse which try to tell an event or story as if as the reader or listener look and experience that event directly.[35] Furthermore by dictionary definition, narrative is description of skill of telling a story. From the statements above, the writer conclude that narrative is a description of event and story such as in a novel, fables or legends. While, narrative text is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past event and entertain the readers.[36] Thus narrative text is a kind of text to retell the story that past tense.



3.      Kinds of Narrative
There are several types of narrative text:[37]
1)      Legend
A legend is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human story. Typically, a legend is a short, traditional and historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode. The examples of legends in narrative text are: Sangkuriang, Malin Kundang, The story of Toba Lake, etc.
2)     Fable
A fable is a short allegorical narrative making a moral point, traditionally by means of animal characters who speak and act like human being the example of fable in narrative text are: The Ants and the grasshopper, the story of monkey and crocodile, etc.
3)    Fairy Tale
Fairy tale is an English language term for a type of short narrative corresponding to the French phrase “Conte de fee”. A fairy tale typically features such folkloric characters as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls dwarves and usually magic or enchantments. The example of fairy tale in narrative texts are: Cinderella, Pinocchio, snow white, etc.
4)    Science Fiction
Science fiction is fiction based upon some imagined development of science, or upon the extrapolation of a tendency in society. Science fiction is that class of prose narrative treating of a situation that could not arise in the world we know. Some examples of science fiction are: To the moon from the earth by Jules Verne, starship trooper by Robert Heinlein.

4. Generic structure of narrative text
A Narrative text will consists of the following structure.[38]
a.    Orientation is introducing the participants and informing the time and the place
b.    Complication is describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with
c.    Resolution is showing the way of participant to solve the crises.

D.      Narrative and Past Tense
The best way to show how narrative and past tense are inseparable is by showing or presenting a true example of narrative. The following is an example of narrative text that hopefully will give rise to deeper understanding of what narrative is, how it is structured and what language features from which a narrative is usually constructed:
WHY DO MOUSQUITOES BUZZ?
To begin with the story, let me tell you that a long time ago, mosquitoes didn’t buzz, they talked and talked. Then one day when one of them talked to an iguana say one word. The iguana just grumbled and waved her tail until she forgot to say hello to her friend a snake. After that, everything was in a mess. The snake was so angry that he made a rabbit, a monkey, a crow, and a owl get frightened. Finally, the whole jungle was mad at the mosquito and cried for the sun to come up and when it did, the mosquito lost his voice.[39]   
                                                 (Adapted from: Look ahead 2)

The word printed indicated the past tense. They show how the text is built up by a series of past events. All verbs are in the past tense form so that the text holds together in the same way. So, there would be no narrative without past tense. Narrative means using past tense to retell past events. Narrative are bound up with past tense since in narrative “past happenings“ are told or written. Here, the writer uses tense agreement to make the text cohesive. With reference to this phenomenon the writer feels that it is desirable to conduct a study in order to prove narrative and past tense relationship.

E.     Grammar, Text and Translating
In the area of English as a foreign language learning, translating has been the most difficult and complex skill to acquire. Because translation is one of writing skill, that is why it is normal if the process of teaching and learning in the classroom reflects that written cycle should be given after the spoken cycle has been done. Translation is one of the most important skills that should be learned and developed by the student. To understanding the meaning and the context of the text, student should be able translate the text so that they know the content or the information of the text.
The translator shall transfer the meaning in the source language into target language, or on the contrary, in order to produce a text that is accordance with the rules of the linguistic system of the target language and that meets the instruction received. The translator shall focus on terminology, grammar, lexis, style, locale, and formatting. That is why teaching language components namely grammar, vocabulary, and sound system, should be targeted as much as possible to enhance the mastery of language skill.
With regard to this, Larsen-freeman and Celce Murcia assess that grammar affect the students’ performance in all four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.[40] As we know that translation is one of writing skill. To be able to translate well in foreign language, for example, students first of all have to master the grammar and vocabulary and they need and more importantly know how to arrange them in appropriate manner. Another thing that should be highlighted here is that text, in order to achieve its purpose, is always represented trough the use of vocabulary with particular way of organizing words meaningfully. So, having a purpose in mind without mastering the grammar and vocabulary to express the meaning of the text it is nonsense.
Furthermore as quoted by Ika Windy in her thesis that Sukur stated that one of the aspects that someone must take into account when translating is language proficiency. Language proficiency relates to grammar and vocabulary mastery.[41] For example, a person who has limited grammar mastery would find it difficult to understand the source language text and to transfer the ideas from the source language into grammatical sentences in the target. Therefore, mastering grammar really help someone to translate well. The translator should follow the rule of translation in order to the text which they make can be understood by the reader well.

As Suryawinata wrote in his book that:
“English is known with tenses (konsep kala). The verb form can change is suitable with the time when the actor do the verb. Thus the form of “berjalan” can be as walked, walks, walk, will walk, have walked, had walked and walking. While in Indonesia language, we do not know with the tenses, it is only enough with “berjalan”. This context will help the reader or listener to understand when an event happened”.[42]

From the statement above the writer concludes that tense is one of important grammar in English. Because of those, to be able translate correctly the students have ability in mastering tenses. Many students often get many troubles in translating narrative texts. The translator need some skills to be able translate, one of these skills is the mastery of tenses. It helps the students to produce grammatical sentences. Thus it quite important for learners to know about tenses especially past tense because the tenses which used in narrative is past tense and it can be seen in the definition that have previously been mentioned it is clear that the mastery of past tense can help the students in learning English, in this case translation.
Hence, grammar, text, and translating however indirectly are dependent each other. Translating without grammar is nonsense.

F.  Theoretical Framework
As the topic of this study indicates, it attempts to reveal whether or not there is a correlation between students’ mastery of past tense and their achievement in writing narrative. Therefore, it seeks to find out the possible relationship between the two variables through correlation statistics. Past tense constitutes one of the English tenses that give an idea that something occurred in the past. So, achievement in past tense here is reflected by the students’ ability to understand and use past tense correctly in the appropriate sense. Past tense includes simple past, past progressive, past perfect, and past perfect progressive tenses. Meanwhile narrative is one of English text type the purpose of which is to tell past events in a sequenced order. Therefore, a narrative is structured of an orientation stating who are involved, when and where the event occurred, etc. It indicates the introduction or the starting point of a narrative. An orientation is commonly followed by sequence of events. Here, what happened are sequenced in order of happening from the beginning until the end. Therefore, the ability to translate narrative here means the ability to retell past events on the basis of the generic structure of a narrative stated above in other language. Since the purpose of translate a narrative is to retell past events, mastering past tense is a must. On the other hand, past tense is the linguistic competence required by students in order to communicate well. It constitutes one of the competences which support communicative competence. Therefore, the writer wants to conduct a study which is aimed at finding out whether or not there is a relationship between students’ ability in past tense and translating narrative text.



CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

A.      Place And Time of Research
1.    Place of Research
The place of research in this study is carried out for the students of eleventh grade of SMAN 1 Seunuddon. The research is located on Jln. Ulee Rubeek -  Seunuddon. Aceh Utara. This study takes this school because the title is not observed before.
2.    Time of Research
The time of this study is carried out on December 2009 at the first semester. After getting an agreement of the school principal and then consult to an English teacher who is teach at the second year of IPA of SMA N 1 Seunuddon.

B.       Population and Sample
1.    Population
Irianto opinioned that a population consists of every number of group that researcher would like to study.[43] Beside, according to McMillan population is a larger group to whom results can be generalized.[44]
Based on the definition above, it is can be concluded that population is the group to which the researcher would like the result of a study to be generalized. It includes all individuals which has certain characteristic.
In this study the population is the eleventh class of SMA N 1 Seunuddon in academic year 2009/2010. The populations consist of 320 students.

2.    Sample
A sample is group of subjects or participants from whom data are collected.[45]
Then Arikunto stated “if the population is too large, the sample can be taken out between 10% - 15% or it depends on the research’s ability based on the time available, energy, expense or finance he can afford the scope of the research area.[46]
In this study, there were nine classes of the eleventh class of SMA N 1 Seunuddon. All students of the eleventh class were 320. And the writer took 10%-15% of students. The samples in this research are the students in XI IPA 1 which consists of 34 students. It means that the writer had to take one class because purposive sampling technique was used.

C.      Method and Variable of Research
1.    Method of Research
In completing the data, the writer used the field research. In the field research, the writer conducted the research for the students at the second year of SMA N 1 Seunuddon. The writer gave a test to the students and asked them to answer the questions that she made.
This research uses the correlation method, with the analysis of product moment. It is usually used to correlate two variables based on its correlation coefficient value. It is useful to describe and find out the significance of the correlation between those two variables, variable X and variable Y.
2.    Variable of Research
According to Arikunto:
“A variable is defined as something that varies from one case to another. The dependent variable is variable which one observes and measure to determine the effect of the independent variable. Independent variable (the major variable) is the variable which selected manipulated and measured by the researcher.[47]

In this research there are two variables, they are: independent variable (X) and dependent variable (Y). Independent variable is a variable that is presumed to influence another variable. Dependent variable is a category that is influenced by another category. In this research the independent variable is past tense mastery (X) and the dependent variable is the students’ ability in translating narrative text (Y).

D.      The Method of Data Collection and Instrument of Research
1.    Method of Data Collection
Although I thought the random sampling technique was the best way to take the sample, at last the writer used the purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling is selection of particularly informative or useful subjects.[48] This technique was chosen because it was hard for the writer to enter each class, took some students and gathered them as sample in random. The writer worried to disturb the teaching learning process. Another problem was related to the place. If the writer uses random sampling, she had to find a certain place/class for the respondent to do the test, and she considered that there were small possibilities to get such facility. So finally, the writer decided to use the purposive sampling technique.  
2.    Instrument of Research
According to Arikunto research instrument is a device used by the researcher while collecting data to make his work become easier get the better result complete and systematic in order to make the data easy to be processed.[49] In this research, the writer used a test method as the instrument. McMillan stated that “test is an instrument that requires subjects to complete a cognitive task by responding to a standard set of questions.”[50] To get the empirical data of the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text, the writer administered two kinds of tests, namely grammar test and translation test. Both of the tests were in written form. In grammar test, the writer used multiple choice tests. The reason for using multiple choice tests were the technique of scoring was easy and it was more practical for the students to answer. The multiple choices item consists of premise and a set of alternative answers. Premise known as the stem is presented as in complete statement, which the students asked to select only one true answer. The writer gave 10 items and 20 minutes for students to do. While in translation test, the writer asked students to translate a kind of narrative text in Indonesia language into English and gave them 60 minutes to do.

E.     Steps of The Research
1.    Try Out
The quality of the data, whether it is good or bad, is based on the instrument to collect the data. A good instrument must fulfill two important qualifications. Those are valid and reliable. So, before the test was used as an instrument to collect the data, it had been tried out first to the students in other class. Students were given 40 minutes in doing each test. The writer gave them 20 items to find out which one the valid items. The writer made an analysis to find out the validity and reliability of the item of the try out. All of them to decide which items should be used in making instrument.

2.    Validity of Instrument
Validity is a standard or criterion that shows whether the instrument is valid or not. A test is valid to the extent that it measure what it claims to measure.[51] To calculate the validity of each item the writer used the product-moment formula:
                       … (1)[52]

Where,
rxy     =   Coefficient of  correlation between x and y variable or validity of each item
N      =   The number of students/subjects participating in the test
Σx     =   The sum of score in each item
Σx2    =   The sum of the square score in each item
Σy     =   The sum of total score from each students
Σy2    =   The sum of square total score from each students
Σxy     =   The sum of multiple of score from each student with the total score in each item

Table 3.1. Criteria of Validity Analysis
Interval
Criteria
0,80 < rxy ≤ 1,00
0,60 < rxy ≤ 0,80
0,40 < rxy ≤ 0,60
0,20 < rxy ≤ 0,40
0,00 < rxy ≤ 0,20
                     rxy ≤ 0,00
Good
Moderate
Low
Low and less
Negligible
Invalid

3.    Reliability of Instrument
Reliability shows whether the instrument is reliable and can be used as a device to collect the data. Reliability means the stability of test scores when the test is used. McMillan stated that reliability is the extent to which participant and/or rater scores are free from error.[53] To measure the reliability of the test, the writer used this formula:
                             …(2)[54]
rn         =   The reliability
n        =   The number of items in the test
p        =   Proportion of the subject answering the item correctly
q        =   Proportion of the subject answering the item in correctly
s2         =   Standard deviation of the test
Σpq   =   The sum of multiple of  P and Q

Table 3.2. Criteria of Reliability Analysis
Interval
Criteria
                       r11 ≤ 0,20
0,20 < r11 ≤ 0,40
0,40 < r11 ≤ 0,60
0,60 < r11 ≤ 0,80
0,80 <  r11 ≤ 1
Negligible
Low
Moderate
Substantial
High to very high

4.    Difficulty Level
After conducting and getting the result of the try out, then the writer classified and selected the items by using this formula:
      or                              … (3)[55]
Where:
TK       = Level of difficulty
JBA      =          Number of students in the upper group (the students who get high score) who answered the items correctly
JBB      = Number of students in the lower group (the students who get low score) who answered the items correctly
JSA      = Number of all students in the upper group
JSB      =          Number of all students in the lower group

Table 3.3. Criteria of Difficulty Level Analysis
  
Interval
Criteria
            TK ≤ 0,00
0,00 <  TK ≤ 0,30
0,30 <  TK ≤ 0,70
0,70 <  TK   1,00
1,00 < TK           
Too difficult
Difficult
Medium
Easy
Too easy

5.    Discriminating Power
The discriminating power measures how well the test items arranged to identify the differences in the students’ competence.
The formula is:
        or                                       …(4)[56]

Where:
DP       = Discriminating power
JBA      = Number of students in the upper group who answer the items correctly
JBB      = Number of students in the lower group who answer the items correctly
JSA       = Number of all students in the upper group
JSB       = Number of all students in the lower group

Table 3.4. Criteria of Discriminating Power Analysis
Interval
Criteria
            D  ≤ 0,00
0,00 <  D  ≤ 0,20
0,20 <  D  ≤ 0,40
0,40 <  D    0,07
0,07 <  D             ≤ 1,00
Too poor
Poor
Medium
Satisfactory
Excellent

6.    Scoring System
In grammar test, the writer used this formula to get students’ score:
S =
In which:
S = The score
R = The number of correct answer
N = The number of question

While in translating test was a little more complicated. A translation can also be said as a writer who produces a translation written that he/she made should be maintened the message in sourch language into target language. The assessment aspects of translation has same of some points in common with the aspect of the writing. languge structure is one of criteria that should be attention because in translating result, it should be appropriate with language structure. Because of that, the writer analyzed students’ translation as well as analyze students’ writing. There were so many methods were suggested like holistic scoring, primary trait scoring and analytical scoring.[57] The writer decided to use analytical scoring which considered best evaluation of learning six major elements in writing Brown and Bailed designed an analytical scoring scaled that specified five major categories and a description of five different levels in each category. Since the major study of this research is grammar, the scoring was in line with grammar level suggested by Brown and Bailey. [58] The scoring system as follow:
20-18
17-15
14-12
11-6
5-1
Excellent to good
Good to adequate
Adequate to fair
unacceptable
Not college level work
Native – like fluency in English grammar
Advanced proficiency in English grammar
Ideas are getting through to the reader
Numerous serious grammar problems
Severe grammar as problems

In classifying the score, the writer used the measurement of student’s achievement suggested by Harris[59]
Table 3.5. Criteria of Student’s Achievement Analysis
Student’s Achievement
Test Score
Class Performance
91 – 100
81 – 90
71 – 80
61 – 70
51 – 60 
Less than 50
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor

F.     Technique of Analysis Data
  In finding out correlation between the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text, the writer applied the product-moment correlation. The formula is:
 

Where,
rxy     =   Correlation Coefficient
N      =   The number of students/subjects participating in the test
Σx     =   The sum of score in grammar test
Σx2    =   The sum of the square score in grammar test
Σy     =   The sum of score in translating test
Σy2    =   The sum of square total score in translating
Σxy     =   The sum of multiple of score from grammar test and translating test in each number
Table 3.6. Interpretation of Number Correlation (r Score) 
Coefficient
Relationship
0,00 to 0,20
0,20 to 0,40
0,40 to 0,60
0,60 to 0,80
0,80 to 1,00
Negligible
Low
Moderate
Substantial
High to very high



 
CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION AND RESULT

A.    Discussion
The purpose of the data analysis in this research is meant to measure the significant correlation between the student’s mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text of the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Seunuddon in academic year 2011/2012. To measure those things, it is important to take the preparatory of measurement as follows:

39
 
Table 4.1. Score of the Student’s Mastery in Past Tense (X)
Number
Student’s Name
Score Answer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Ade yunisa
Aminah
Anggi Yolanda
Armiati
Ayudya wuriandani
Ayuwaningsih
Candra wijaya
Deina hayaningsih
Diky kurniawan
Ernita
Fauziah
Hafiz al assad
Irfansyah
Lasmi
M khadafi Juliana
M noval akbar
Muzani
Nanda sulfeni
Nova pandala
Nurdefriansyah
Puri mawaddah
Rahmanda aksar
Renitasya putri
Sella novia restika
Selvi dayanti
Sika rahmi
Siti fira wulansuri
Sri rahayu
Syarifah nazira
Ulfah qalbiah
Wildanil
Yeni erlina
Yollanda ananda
Yuliani S
70
80
70
90
70
50
40
60
90
50
90
80
70
80
80
70
60
90
90
50
80
40
60
90
50
50
90
90
50
90
70
60
60
60

Average
69,70
42
 







Table 4.2. Score of the Student’s Ability in Translating Narrative Text (Y)
Number
Student’s Name
Score Answer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Ade yunisa
Aminah
Anggi Yolanda
Armiati
Ayudya wuriandani
Ayuwaningsih
Candra wijaya
Deina hayaningsih
Diky kurniawan
Ernita
Fauziah
Hafiz al assad
Irfansyah
Lasmi
M khadafi Juliana
M noval akbar
Muzani
Nanda sulfeni
Nova pandala
Nurdefriansyah
Puri mawaddah
Rahmanda aksar
Renitasya putri
Sella novia restika
Selvi dayanti
Sika rahmi
Siti fira wulansuri
Sri rahayu
Syarifah nazira
Ulfah qalbiah
Wildanil
Yeni erlina
Yollanda ananda
Yuliani S
82
75
83
80
76
55
50
67
87
60
80
65
80
75
85
55
65
85
75
60
75
50
68
75
55
60
70
82
60
80
75
60
63
65

Average
69,94




Table 4.3.  The Square and Multiplied of X and Y
Number
Student’s Name
X
Y
X2
Y2
XY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Ade yunisa
Aminah
Anggi Yolanda
Armiati
Ayudya wuriandani
Ayuwaningsih
Candra wijaya
Deina hayaningsih
Diky kurniawan
Ernita
Fauziah
Hafiz al assad
Irfansyah
Lasmi
M khadafi Juliana
M noval akbar
Muzani
Nanda sulfeni
Nova pandala
Nurdefriansyah
Puri mawaddah
Rahmanda aksar
Renitasya putri
Sella novia restika
Selvi dayanti
Sika rahmi
Siti fira wulansuri
Sri rahayu
Syarifah nazira
Ulfah qalbiah
Wildanil
Yeni erlina
Yollanda ananda
Yuliani S
70
80
70
90
70
50
40
60
90
50
90
80
70
80
80
70
60
90
90
50
80
40
60
90
50
50
90
90
50
90
70
60
60
60
82
75
83
80
76
55
50
67
87
60
80
65
80
75
85
55
65
85
75
60
75
50
68
75
55
60
70
82
60
80
75
60
63
65
4900
6400
4900
8100
4900
2500
1600
3600
8100
2500
8100
6400
4900
6400
6400
4900
3600
8100
8100
2500
6400
1600
3600
8100
2500
2500
8100
8100
2500
8100
4900
3600
3600
3600
6724
5625
6889
6400
5776
3025
2500
4489
7569
3600
6400
4225
6400
5625
7225
3025
4225
7225
5625
3600
5625
2500
4624
5625
3025
3600
4900
6724
3600
6400
5625
3600
3969
4225
5740
6000
5810
7200
5320
2750
2000
4020
7830
3000
7200
5200
5600
6000
6800
3850
3900
7650
6750
3000
6000
2000
4080
6750
2750
3000
6300
7380
3000
7200
5250
3600
3780
3900

2370
2378
174100
170214
170610
 To interpret the research findings, the writer used the Pearson product moment correlation formula to compute the data that have been obtained as follows:
     = 0,824

From the computation above, it was obtained that rxy is 0,824 and then rxy is consulted to the critical value for r table of product moment to examine whether rxy value is significant or not. The value or r table with N = 34 and the 5% significant level is 0,339. There fore, it can be concluded that rxy is greater than r table in the other words, 0,824 is greater than 0,339.
Relating to that matter, I take a conclusion that there is a correlation between the student’s mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text.
Did every student with good score in the test of mastery in past tense also have good score in translating narrative text? From the analysis above, it could be seen that among the sample of 34 student’s, there were 0 student got excellent, 9 student’s got very  good, 5 student’s got good, 6 student’s got fair, 6 student’s got poor and 8 student’s got very poor in the test of mastering past tense .
Among the sample of 34 student’s there were 0 student’s got excellent, 6 student’s got very good, 11 student’s got good, 7 student’s got fair, 8 student’s got poor, and 2 student’s got very poor in the score of the student’s ability in translating narrative text. The student’s who had high score in the score of mastering past tense effect the student’s ability in translating narrative text. This is proved by the fact that the student’s who passed the test of mastering past tense well. Let’s look at the table of comparison of the student’s who had very good and excellent level score below.
Table 4.4. High Score of Students in Mastering Past Tense and Translating Narrative Text

Student’s Number
Score of student’s mastery in past tense
Score of student’s ability in translating narrative text
24
9
11
14
15
18
19
90
90
90
80
80
90
90
80
87
80
75
85
85
75

In contrast, the student’s who could not pass the test of mastering past tense also had poor level to translate narrative text. Let’s look at the table below to see it clearly.
Table 4.5. Low Score of Students in Mastering Past Tense and Translating Narrative Text

Student’s Number
Score of student’s mastery in past tense
Score of student’s ability in translating
6
8
10
22
23
26
50
60
50
40
50
50
55
67
60
50
55
60

By looking at the table above, we can see it clearly that almost all the student’s who failed to pass the test of student’s mastery in past tense, also got poor or poor to average result in translating narrative text.
            According to the criterion of SMA N 1 Seunuddon taken from English curriculum 2011, the students are considered to be success if they get at least 60 of the highest possible score 100 and they are considered to be failed if the score they get are under 60. In this case, 20 (58,82 %) students got successful result in past tense test and 24 (70,59%) students got successful result in translating narrative text test. While 14 (41,18%) students failed in past tense test and 10 (29,41%) students failed in translating narrative text test.

B.  Result
The research findings indicate that there is a significance correlation between the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text. From the statistic analysis, it was found out that there was a positive correlation between the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text. It was proved by the value of rxy of the correlation was greater than r table. The value of rxy was 0,824. When we consulted it to the r table with N = 34, we found that r table had a value 0,339. It could be seen obviously that the value of rxy is greater than the r table.
            These fact imply that the students’ mastery of past tense give a useful contribution in their ability in translating narrative text. From the result of the research, the writer concluded that the hypothesis is accepted. The better the students understand past tense, the better the students’ ability in translating narrative text. The worse the students understand past tense, the worse the students’ ability in translating narrative text.

















CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.    Conclusion
Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded as follows:
1.    The average score of the students’ mastery in past tense is 69,70. 0 student (0%) get excellent level, 9 students (26,47%) get very good, 5 students (14,70%) get good, 6 students (17,65%) get fair, 6 students (17,65%) get poor and 8 students (23,53%) get very poor
2.    The average score of the students’ ability in translating narrative text is 69,94.  0 student (0%) get excellent level, 6 students (17,65%) get very good, 11 students (32,35%) get good, 7 students (20,59%) get fair, 8 students (23,53%) get poor and 2 students (5,88%) get very poor.
3.    There is a significant correlation between the students’ mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text. This result is obtained from the computation of the correlation between the students, mastery of past tense and their ability in translating narrative text applied to the sample is 0,824. The critical value of the Pearson r with the 5% significance level is 0,339. It means that the result obtained from the computation is greater than its critical value. Therefore, the writer concludes that the correlation between the two variables above is highly significance.


 
B.       Suggestion

  1.  
    It is essential that the teacher knows that one of the factors affect the students’ ability in translating narrative text is the students’ mastery of structure of past tense.
  2. The writer suggest for the English teacher to be more serious and careful in teaching past tense because past tense is one way to make the students easier to translate narrative text.
  3. The student should improve their mastery of past tense because the mastery of past tense will improve their ability in translating narrative text.















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ABSTRACT

This thesis focuses on a correlation study between past tense mastery and the ability of translating narrative text amongst the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Seunuddon.
The objectives of the study are to find out the students mastery of past tense and the students’ ability in translating narrative text, and also to find out whether or not there is a correlation between past tense mastery and students’ ability in translating narrative text.
The population of this study is the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Seunuddon. The sampling process was administered by applying a purposive sampling technique. There were 320 students of the eleventh grade and the writer took 34 students as the sample.
The writer administered two kinds of tests, namely grammar test and translation test. Both of the tests were in written form. In grammar test, the writer used multiple choice test, while in translation test, the writer asked students to translate a kind text of narrative into English. The instrument used for measuring the achievement was a test. Before the instrument was used, it had been tried out first. The main purpose of conducting it was to find out the validity, reliability discrimination power and level of difficulties of the item of past tense in a multiple choice test. The writer then selected the items before they were used as the instrument of this research.
The result of this research showed that there is a significant correlation between past tense mastery and students ability in translating narrative text. This result is obtained from the computation of the correlation between past tense mastery and students’ ability in translating narrative text applied to the sample is 0,824. The critical value of the Pearson r with the 5% significant level is 0,339. It means that the result obtained from the computation is greater than its critical value. Therefore, the writer concluded that the correlation between the two variables is significant and the writer can see the average score of the students’ mastery in past tense is 69,70. 0 student (0%) get excellent level, 9 students (26,47%) get very good, 5 students (14,70%) get good, 6 students (17,65%) get fair, 6 students (17,65%) get poor and 8 students (23,53%) get very poor and The average score of the students’ ability in translating narrative text is 69,94.  0 student (0%) get excellent level, 6 students (17,65%) get very good, 11 students (32,35%) get good, 7 students (20,59%) get fair, 8 students (23,53%) get poor and 2 students (5,88%) get very poor.
In line with the result of the research, it is essential that the teacher to know that one of the factory effect the students’ ability in translating narrative text is the student’s mastery of past tense. The writer also suggest’ that students’ should improve their mastery of past tense because the mastery of past tense can improve their ability in translating narrative text. Thus, the better the students understand past tense, the better the students’ ability in translating narrative text. The worse the students understand past tense, the worse the students’ ability in translating narrative text.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to thank Allah SWT, the almighty God, who has given the writer, health and ability so that the writer can finish this thesis. Peace and salutation are presented to our last prophet, Muhammad SAW who brought people from the darkness age into the brightest age of knowledge.
This thesis is a partial fulfillment of the requirements for Sarjana degree. In completing this thesis, the writer is fully indebted to some lecturers at IAIN Ar-Raniri Banda Aceh especially English department. The writer would like to express her sincere gratitude and respect to the head of English department Teuku Saiful Fasha, MA.
The writer would like to express her deepest gratitude to Drs. Marzuki, MA and Dr. Sabaruddin. AG the first and second supervisor for their valuable advice and suggestion.
She also extends her great gratitude to the headmaster Muhammad Shaleh, S.Pd, the English teacher, Sulaiman, S.Pd, and all teachers of SMAN 1 Seunuddon for their help during finishing this thesis.
The writer also thanks to her friends, Ali, Adi, Amri, Fitrah, Lisa, Linda, Nurul, Ria, and all her friends in PBI-I and PBI-II.
Finally, the writer wants to express her appreciations, to her beloved parents, Abdul Gani Ahmad and Syamsyiah, I own them ever lasting thank, her sisters Safriati, Nursiah, Marzuki, Sabaruddin, Ibnu Hajar and Yusniati.
However, the writer believes that this thesis is far from perfection, thus any critic, advices or suggestions are needed in order to make this thesis perfect.

The Writer


TARMIZI. AG



 v
 
 

 
BIOGRAPHY

Tarmizi. AG was born in Alue Capli on Desember 4, 1982. He is the 4th child of seven siblings. He is the son of Mr. Abdul Gani and Mrs. Syamsyiah. His education starts from Elementary School in SDN Simpang IV Seunuddon, then Secondary School in SMPN 1 Seunuddon and the Senior High School in SMAN 1 Seunuddon which each of that graduate in 1995, 1998, and 2001.
In 2005, the writer was accepted as a student of S-1 Program of English education in Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Ar-Raniri Banda Acehthrough regular selection. During studying, the writer had joined with the organization of English Department is English club. And thanks for God, in 2009 the writer have struggled finish her study of S-1 Program with satisfactory result.













 vi
 
 


 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PAST TENSE MASTERY AND THE ABILITY OF TRANSLATING NARRATIVE TEXT AMONGST THE ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 SEUNUDDON





THESIS




Submitted By:




TARMIZI. AG
The Student of English Department
Tarbiyah Faculty
Reg. No : 120726091







 

















INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI
AR-RANIRI BANDA ACEH
TAHUN 2009

 
 





THESIS



Submitted to the Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Ar-Raniri Banda Aceh
as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana
Degree S-1 in Teacher Education




By :


TARMIZI. AG


The Student of English Department
Tarbiyah Faculty
Reg. No : 120726091






Accepted by :


              Main Supervisor,                                         Co Supervisor,




          Drs. MARZUKI, MA                             Dr. SABARUDDIN. AG









 
C O N T E N T

Acknowledgement .................................................................................................. v
Content                                                                                                              .........             vi
List of Table ......................................................................................................... viii
List of Appendixes ................................................................................................ ix
Abstract ................................................................................................................... x

Chapter I      Introduction ....................................................................................... 1
A.      The Background of Study .......................................................... 1
B.       Statement of Problem ................................................................. 4
C.       The Objectives of Study ............................................................. 4
D.      The Significances of Study ......................................................... 4
E.       The Hypothesis ........................................................................... 5
F.        Terminology ................................................................................ 5

Chapter II     Theoretical Framework ...................................................................... 9
A.      Definition of Grammar ............................................................... 9
1.    English Tenses ...................................................................... 10
2.    Past Tense............................................................................. 11
2.1     Definition of Past Tense ............................................... 11
2.2     The Description of Meaning, Form and Function ........ 11
1.    Simple Past Tense .................................................... 11
2.    Past Progressive Tense ............................................. 12
3.    Past Perfect Tense ..............................................       13
4.    Past Perfect Progressive Tense ................................. 14
B.       Translation ................................................................................ 15
1.    Definition of Translation....................................................... 15
2.    Kinds of Translation ............................................................ 15
3.    Translation Process ............................................................... 17
C.       Text ........................................................................................... 19
1.    Narrative as One Text Types in English ............................... 21
2.    Definition of Narrative ........................................................ 21
3.    Kinds of Narrative ............................................................... 22
4.    Generic Structure of Narrative Text .................................... 23
D.      Narrative and Past Tense .......................................................... 23
E.       Grammar, Text and Translating ................................................ 24
F.        Theoretical Framework ............................................................. 26

Chapter III   Methodology of Research  .............................................................. 28
A.      Place and Time of Research ...................................................... 28
1.    Place of Time Research ........................................................ 28
2.    Time of Research ................................................................. 28
B.       Population and Sample ............................................................. 28
1.    Population ............................................................................ 28
2.    Sample .................................................................................. 29




                 

                    C.  Method and Variable of Research ............................................ 29
1.    Method of Research ............................................................. 29
2.    Variable of Research............................................................. 30
D.      The Method of Data Collection and Instrument of Research    30
1.    Method of Data Collection .................................................. 30
2.    Instrument of Research ........................................................ 31
E.       Steps of The Research .............................................................. 32
1.    Try Out ................................................................................. 32
2.    Validity of Instrument ......................................................... 32
3.    Reliability of Instrument ...................................................... 33
4.    Difficulty Level ................................................................... 34
5.    Discriminating Power ........................................................... 35
6.    Scoring system ..................................................................... 36
F.        Technique of Analysis Data ...................................................... 38

Chapter IV   Discussion and Result ...................................................................... 39
A.      Discussion ................................................................................. 39
B.       Result ........................................................................................ 44

Chapter V     Conclusion and Suggestion ............................................................. 46
A.      Conclusion ................................................................................ 46
B.       Suggestion ................................................................................ 47

Bibliography                                                                                                      ..... 48
Appendixes                                                                                                        ..... 51
Biography














vii
 
 

 
LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1.   Criteria of Validity Analysis............................................................... 33

Table 3.2.   Criteria of Reliability Analysis............................................................ 34

Table 3.3.   Criteria of Difficulty Level Analysis.................................................. 35

Table 3.4.   Criteria of Discriminating Power Analysis......................................... 36

Table 3.5.   Criteria of Student’s Achievement analysis ....................................... 37

Table 3.6.   Interpretation of Number Correlation (r Score) ................................. 38

Table 4.1.   Score of the Student’s Mastery in Past Tense (X).............................. 39

Table 4.2.   Score of the Student’s Ability in Translating Narrative Text (Y)....... 40

Table 4.3.  The Square and Multiplied of X and Y.............................................. 41

Table 4.4.   High Score of Students in Mastering Past Tense and Translating Narrative Text                      43

Table 4.5.   Low Score of Students in Mastering Past Tense and Translating Narrative Text                       44






















viii
 
 

 

 
LIST OF APPENDIXES



Appendixes 1    The Instrument for Grammar Test .............................................. 51

Appendixes 2    The  Instrument for Translation Test ........................................... 54

Appendixes 3    Table of Item Analysis ................................................................ 56

Appendixes 4    Table of r Product Moment ......................................................... 62






















ix
 
 


[1] As. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 1632
[2] New Mark. P, Approaches to Translation, (Oxford: Pergaman Press, 1982), p. 7
[3] As. Hornby, op. cit, p. 675
[4] As. Hornby,  Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 284
[5] Collins, English Grammar, (London: Haper Collins, 2003), p. xxi
[6] As. Hornby, op.cit, p. 343
[7] James H, McMillan, Educational Research: Fundamental for the Consumer, (United States of America: Pearson Education Inc,2008), p. 141
[8] As. Hornby, op.cit,p, p. 312
[9] Collins,  English Grammar, (London: Haper Collins, 2003), p. xvi
[10] Berttranm A, The Saurus Of Every Day American English, (Chicago: NTC, 1998), p. 604
[11] Meriem and Webster, Third New International Dictionary, (Newyork, 1971), p. 604
[12] Martin H. Manser, Oxford Learner Pocket Dictionary, (England: Longman, 1991), p. 1
[13] Allyn and Bacon, Phycology the Science of Behavior, (London: Longman, 1964), p. 2
[14] JC. Catford, Linguistic Theory of Translation, (Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press 1965), p. 20
[15] Zuchridin Suryawinata and Sugeng Hariyanto, Translation: Bahasa Teori dan Penuntun Praktis Menerjemahkan (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2003), p. 13
[16] As. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 284
[17] Isdaryanto, Definition of Narrative (Online) ,http://understandingtext.blog.spot.com. accessed on May, 12, 2011
[18] J Cook and Suter W, The Scope of Grammar, (New york: Mc Graw-Hill, 1980 ), p. 1
[19] Veit R, Discovering English Grammar, (Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1985), p.25
[20] As. Hornby Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 1324
[21] Marcella Frank, Modern English: A Practical Reference Guide,  (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1972), p. 47
[22] Collin,  English Grammar, (London: Haper Collins, 2003), p. xxi
[23]Wren and Martin, High School English Grammar and Composition, (New Delhi: S. Chand and Company LTD, 1989), p. 66
[24] Ibid, p. 67
[25] Bety Schrampfer, Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Second Edition, (Ney Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1992) p. 18
[26] Wren and Martin, op. cit, p. 70
[27] Widyamartaya, A, Seni Menerjemahkan, (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1989), p. 4
[28] New Mark, P, Approaches to Translation, (Oxford: Pergaman Press, 1982), p. 7
[29] Mildred, Larson, Meaning-Based Translation, (Maryland: University press of America, 1984 ), p.15
[30] Zuchridin Suryawinata and Sugeng Harianto, Translation;Bahasan Teori dan Penuntutn Praktis Menerjemahkan, (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2003), p. 19
[31] M.A.K. Halliday and Hasan R, Language, Context and Text: aspect of language in a social – semiotic perspective, ( Hongkong: Oxford University press, 1985), p. 10
[32] H Joyce and S Feez, Text Based Syllabus Design, ( Sidney: NLE CTR , 1998), p. 5
[33] M.A.K. Halliday and Hasan R, op.cit, p.
[34]Derewianka, Exploring how text work, (Newton: Primary English Teaching Assosiciation, 1990),p. 17
[35] Gorys Keraf, Argumentasi dan Narasi (Jakarta: Gramedia, 2007), p. 135
[36] Isdaryanto, Definition of Narrative, (on line), http:// Understanding text.blog.spot.com. accessed on May, 12, 2011
[37] Ibid, accessed on May, 12, 2011
[38] Ibid, accessed on, may, 12, 2011
[39] Th.M.Sudarwati and Eudia Grace, Look Ahead  2, ( Jakarta: Erlangga, 2006 ), p. 48
[40] Celce Murcia and Larsen Freeman, The Grammar Book: ESL/EFL Teachers’ course, (Cambridge: Newbury House, 1983), p. 2
[41] Ika Windy Febrianingrum, http: //translate. Google user content.com, accessed on juny 10 2011
[42] Zuchridin Suryawinata and Sugeng Harianto, Translation; Bahasan Teori dan Penuntutn Praktis Menerjemahkan, (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2003), p. 82
[43] Agus, Irianto, Bahan Ajaran Statistik Pendidikan,(Jakarta: Depdikbud, 1989), p. 18
[44] James H, McMillan,  Educational Research: Fundamental for the Consumer, (United States of America: Pearson Education Inc,2008), p. 112
[45]  Ibid, p. 110
[46] Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2006), p. 134
[47] Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian, ( Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2002), p. 98
[48] James H, McMillan,  Educational Research: Fundamental for the Consumer, (United States of America: Pearson Education Inc,2008), p. 119
[49] Suharsimi arikunto, op. cit, p. 136
[50] James H, McMillan, op. cit, p. 160
[51] Donald Ary, Introduction to research in Education, (New york: CBS College Publishing, 1985),  p. 143
[52] Suharsimi Arikunto,  Prosedur Penelitian, ( Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2002),p. 146
[53] James H, McMillan, Educational Research: Fundamentals For the  Consumer, (United States of America: Pearson Education Inc,2008) p. 149
[54] Suharsimi Arikunto, op. cit, p. 188
[55] Erman Suherman, Strategi Pembelajaran Kontemporer, (Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 2001), p. 189
[56]  Ibid, p. 176
[57] H. Douglas, Brown, Language Assement (San Fransisco State Univercity, Longman 2004) p. 241-243
[58] J. Dean, Brown and M. Bailey Kathleen, A Categorical Instrument for Scoring Second Language Writing Skills. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs.accessed_on_september 1, 2011. p. 39-41                                                                             
[59] David, Harris, Testing English as a Second Language, (New York: Mc. Graw Hill Book Company,Inc, 1969), p. 134
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