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Selasa, 24 Juli 2012

History of Indonesia's Independence

In 1944 Saipan fell to the Allies by the Japanese forces in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Marshall Islands and successfully in at back by the Allied forces. In such critical situations, on March 1, 1945 Lieutenant General Kumakici Harada, chairman of the Japanese occupation government in Java, announced the establishment of Board of Inquiry's independence efforts preparation INDONESIA (Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai). Announced the appointment of this committee on 29 April 1945. dr. K.R.T. Radjiman Wediodiningrat in the lift as (Kaico), while sitting as a young leader (fuku Kico) connecting the first by a Japanese named Shucokai cirebon Icibangase. R.P. Suroso in lift as the head of the Secretariat with the help by Toyohiti and Mr. Masuda. A. G. Pringodigdo on May 28, 1945 dedication ceremony was held Efforts Investigation Agency located in Building Pathways to Independence Sangi In CuO, Pejambon Road (now the Department of Foreign Affairs), Jakarta. inauguration ceremony was also attended by two Japanese officers, General Itagaki (Commander of the Seventh Army, based in Singapore) and Lieutenant General Nagano (Commander of the Army to a new sixteen). On that occasion in kibarkan Japanese flag, Hinomaru by Mr.AG Pringgodigdo followed by red and white flag-raising by Toyohiko Masuda.

A. Formulation of the State of IndonesiaTo formulate the Constitution begins with a discussion of the basic state of Indonesia Merdeka.a. Mr formulation. Muh. YaminCharacter who first had the opportunity for the delivery of the formulation of the State of Indonesia Merdeka is Mr Muh. Yamin suggested five "principle of the Republic of Indonesia" as follows:1. Peri Nationality2. Peri Kemusiaan3. The Belief in fairies4. Peri Kerakyataan5. Welfare of the peopleb. Formulation of prof. Dr. Mr. SoepomoOn 31 May 1945 Prof. Dr.Mr Soepomo of the State of Indonesia Merdeka filed as follows:1. Unity2. Kinship3. Balance4. Discussion5. Social justicec. Formulation of Ir. SoekarnoOn June 1, 1945 a meeting took place last in the first trial. On the occasion of his speech suggests that Ir Soekarno became known as "The Birth PANCASILA". In addition to the basic state contains a view of an independent Indonesia, Ir Soekarno speech feature also contains suggestions for names for the basic state, the Pancasila, Trisila, or Ekasila. Furthermore, the court chose the name of Pancasila as the base name of the country. Five basic state proposed by Ir Soekarno is as follows:1. Nationality Indonesia2. Internationalism or humanitarian3. Consensus or democracy4. Social welfare5. Belief in God Almighty

       
a. Jakarta CharterOn June 22, 1945 BPUPKI form a small committee consisting of the nine people. By karna, the committee is also called as a committee of nine. Members totaled 9 people, which is as follows:1. Ir.Soekarno2. Drs.Moh. Thereupon3. Mr. Muh. Yamin4. Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo5. Mr. A.A. Maramis6. Abdul Kadir Muzakir7. K. H. Wachid Hasjim8. H. Agus Salim9. Abikusno TjokrosjosoMr. Moch. Yamin was named the formulation of the charter Jakarta or Jakarta Charter. The formulation of the basic design of an independent Indonesia was the country are as follows:1. The deity, with the obligation to execute Islamic Shari'ah as followers - followers,2. (According to) the basis of a just and civilized humanity3. Unity of Indonesia4. (And) Democracy guided by the inner wisdom of representative pemusyawaratan5. (As well as the realization of) social justice for democratic Indonesia

        
b. The draft constitutionOn July 10, 1945 Plan discussed the Constitution, including the matter of opening or preambule her by a designer committee unanimously approved the constitution view contents prembule (opening) in the capture of the Jakarta Charter. The results of this formulation subcommittee later in the language perfected by the committee consisting of smoothing language Djaja Diningrat Hussein, H. Agus Salim, and Prof. Dr. Mr. Soetomo.2nd BPUPKI trials performed on the date of July 14, 1945 in order to accept the committee report designer Constitution. Ir. Soekarno as ketui penitia reported three outcomes, namely:1. Statement of independent Indonesia2. Opening of the Constitution3. Constitution (the torso)2. Reaction GolongonMuda

     
A. Youth Congress All JavaDated May 16, 1945 in Bandung youth congress held that the entire Java Indonesia moeda initiated force. Congress youth dihadirin by over 100 youths. Congress called on the youth in Java should unite and prepare to implement the proclamation kemerdkaan. satelah 3 day congress took place, finally decided on two pieces of the resolution, namely:1) all segments of Indonesia, especially the youth in the round and united under one national leadership.2) accelerated the implementation of Indonesia's independence declaration.

     
B. Establishment of the Armed Movement Baroe Indonesiastatement on youth congress of Java do not satisfy some youth leaders in attendance. They were determined to express a more radical youth movement. held a secret meeting in Jakarta weeks to form a committee headed by a specially B. M. Diah Forces Movement that resulted in the formation Baroe Indonesia for example:1. Achieve a compact unity among all segments of society Indonesia2. Inculcate the spirit of the revolutionary period on the basis of their consciousness as citizens of a sovereign3. Form a unitary republic of Indonesia4. Shoulders with the Japanese to unite Indonesia, but if need be included to achieve independence on their own.

     
C. Establishment of the People's Movement Baroe.Baroe popular movement which is in the form based on the outcome of the trial to-8 CuO Sangiin. The composition of this organization's central board consists of 80 people. Its members consist of indigenous Indonesian and Japanese people type Chinese, Arabs, and the Eurasian group.3. Formation PPKIOn August 7, 1945 as the successor BPUPKI in dispersed form PPKI Japanese occupation government. Ir. Sukarno as president PPKI and Drs. Moch. Hatta was appointed as deputy chairman, while Mr.Ahmad Soerbardjo appointed as advisors.4. Rengasdengklok eventsMohammad Hatta promised to ask the Gunsekanbu. Once convinced that the Japanese had given to the allies Moh. Hatta mengabil decision to leave PPKI Members. Chairul meeting led by Saleh's result in a decision "Indonesia's Independence is a matter of right and Indonesia alone, nobody can hang with the people and other countries5. Formulation Text ProclamationBefore they begin merumskan text of the proclamation. The first sentence of the text of the proclamation is a suggestion of Mr.Ahmad Soebardjo BPUPKI taken from the formula, while the last line is the contribution of Drs. Moh. Hatta.6. Implementing the Declaration of IndependenceNation's leaders have come to the streets Indonesiia held at the East. The arrangement of events that have been prepared are:1) Reading of the Proclamation2) Red and White Flag hoisting3) Message from Mayor Soewirdjo and dr. Muwardi7. News spread of the ProclamationNews of the proclamation which was widespread throughout Jakarta disseminated throughout Indonesia. In addition to the radio, the news of the proclamation also broadcast through the press and leaflet 

8. People's reaction against the Declaration of IndependenceReaction to various regions in Indonesia against the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia is the change of power, either by force or by means of negotiations.

     
D. Government of Indonesia Pembentukaan

A. Pembentukaan completion of the State

a.) PPKI Assembly on August 18, 19451) Discussion and Pengesahaan Constitution2) Change in Constitution PPKI meeting dated August 18, 19453) Problems penmgangkatan President and Vice President4) Establishment of National Committee 
b) The trial PPKI date August 19, 19451) The division of the territory of Indonesia into 8 provinces along with the Governor2) Establishment of Committee Nasionol3) Establish 12 Ministry

 
c) The trial PPKI date August 22, 19451) The establishment of national committees2) Establishment of national parties Indonesia3) The establishment of the People's security bsdan (BKR)

d) Meeting IKADA Giant in the Field2. Changes KNPI authority and the Presidency at the beginning of the Independence Institute1) The first presidential Cabinet2) Government Notice Date 16 Oktobor No.X 19453) Government Notice Date 3 November 19454) Government Notice Date 14 November 1945
 
       C. Preparation of the Defence Forces Security

 
1) Establishment of BKR2) Establishment of National Armed Forces
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